STEP 3 - Interview Preparation and Details
**************MAIN TOPICS - ****************************
1.FDI in retailing/aviation(49)/insurance(49)/pension(26)/ Broadcast(74)
minimum $100 million
India in 1997 allowed foreign direct investment (FDI) in cash and carry wholesale. single brand was alowed
single brand retailers, such as Apple and Ikea, can own 100 percent of their Indian stores, up from the previous cap of 51 percent
Supermarkets and similar organized retail accounted for just 4% of the market
2.Coal scam/other scams 2004-2009 -The essence of the CAG's argument is that the Government had the authority to allocate coal blocks by a process of competitive bidding, but chose not to
3.Fiscal deficit consolidation - Fiscal consolidation is a reduction in the underlying fiscal deficit. It is not aimed at eliminating fiscal debt
4.FDI in education sector(100)/health care(100) - Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB)
5.King Fisher bankruptcy/Maruti management workers issue
7.Why Indian can't win gold medal in Olympic
8.GDP low growth rate
9.Oil price increase
11.measures to control inflation by RBI
12.Globalization and its benefit to rural area assure of but, cold storage
13.Company ethics and business issue
14.Industrial pollution /Global warming
15.Basel II - recommendations on banking laws and regulations
US Economy - 2007-2012
escalation of US dollar value and its impact on Indian economy
National Rural Health Mission (NRHM): National Rural Health Mission (2005–12)
the initiatives under NRHM have contributed to reducing the maternal mortality rate (MMR), infant mortality rate (IMR) and total fertility rate (TFR).
Kudankulam Atomic Power Project - People's Movement Against Nuclear Energy. - 2000MW
Large# of people in vicinity, Germany closed 17 such plants
US against as NSG
Economy of India-
The economy of India is the eleventh largest in the world by nominal GDP and the third largest by purchasing power parity (PPP)
After the independence-era Indian economy (before and a little after 1947) was inspired by the Soviet model of economic development, with a large public sector, high import duties combined with interventionist policies, leading to massive inefficiencies and widespread corruption. However, later on India adopted free market principles and liberalized its economy to international trade under the guidance of Manmohan Singh, who then was the Finance Minister of India under the leadership of P.V. Narasimha Rao the then Prime Minister who eliminated License Raj a pre- and post-British Era mechanism of strict government control on setting up new industry.
The growth was led primarily due to a huge increase in the size of the middle class consumer, a large labour force, growth in the manufacturing sector due to rising education levels and engineering skills and considerable foreign investments. India is the nineteenth largest exporter and tenth largest importer in the world. Economic growth rate stood at around 6.5% for the 2011–12 fiscal year
Bad condistions because Govt spending apprx Rs.13.2 trillion, income Rs.7.7 trillion
Services sector hit
1991 issue - balance of payments problems, foreign reserves nearly depleted - $1 billion, import for 3 months only
Globalization means the dismantling of trade barriers between nations and the integration of the nations economies through financial flow, trade in goods and services, and corporate investments between nations.
Adv - choice, flow from devlpd to devling, technology
Dis - outsourcing, small industries
1. Devaluation: To solve the balance of payment problem Indian currency were devaluated by 18 to 19%.
2. Disinvestment: To make the LPG model smooth many of the public sectors were sold to the private sector.
3. Allowing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): FDI was allowed in a wide range of sectors such as Insurance (26%), defense industries (26%) etc.
4. NRI Scheme: The facilities which were available to foreign investors were also given to NRI's
chanda shekhar 67 tons gold, govt collapsed, PVN stepped in
In the late 1970s, the government led by Morarji Desai eased restrictions on capacity expansion for incumbent companies, removed price controls, reduced corporate taxes and promoted the creation of small scale industries in large numbers. However, the subsequent government policy of Fabian socialism hampered the benefits of the economy, leading to high fiscal deficits and a worsening current account. The collapse of the Soviet Union, which was India's major trading partner, and the Gulf War, which caused a spike in oil prices, resulted in a major balance-of-payments crisis for India, which found itself facing the prospect of defaulting on its loans. India asked for a $1.8 billion bailout loan from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which in return demanded reforms
1991, after India faced a balance of payments crisis, it had to pledge 20 tons of gold to Union Bank of Switzerland and 47 tons to Bank of England as part of a bailout deal with the International Monetary Fund (IMF). In addition, IMF required India to undertake a series of structural economic reforms
The new neo-liberal policies included opening for international trade and investment, deregulation, initiation of privatization, tax reforms, and inflation-controlling measures
Estimated GDP growth rate - 6.5%
Retailing in India - 15% of GDP
The Indian retail market is estimated to be US$ 450 billion
In 2010, larger format convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for about 4 percent of the industry
Challenges - Govt approvals, infrastructure like cold storage
E-commerce in India - estimated to be worth Rs 50,000 crore
About 75% of this is travel related (airline tickets, railway tickets, hotel bookings, online mobile recharge etc.). Online Retailing comprises about 12.5% ($300 Million as of 2009). India has close to 10 million online shoppers and is growing at an estimated 30%  CAGR vis-à-vis a global growth rate of 8-10%. Electronics and Apparel are the biggest categories in terms of sales.
India has an internet user base of over 100 million  users. The penetration of e-commerce is low compared to markets like the United States and the United Kingdom but is growing  at a much faster rate with a large number of new entrants.[
Increasing broadband Internet (growing at 20%  MoM) and 3G penetration.
Rising standards of living and a burgeoning, upwardly mobile middle class with high disposable incomes
Availability of much wider product range (including long tail and Direct Imports) compared to what is available at brick and mortar retailers
Busy lifestyles, urban traffic congestion and lack of time for offline shopping
Lower prices compared to brick and mortar retail driven by disintermediation and reduced inventory and real estate costs
Evolution of the online marketplace model with sites like ebay, Infibeam, and Tradus
IT in India -
providing direct employment to about 2.8 million, and indirectly employing 8.9 million people
The IT–ITES industry has two major components: IT Services and business process outsourcing (BPO). The growth in the service sector in India has been led by the IT–ITES sector, contributing substantially to increase in GDP, employment, and exports. The sector has increased its contribution to India's GDP from 1.2% in FY1998 to 7.5% in FY2012.
1979: Michael Aldrich invented online shopping
1981: Thomson Holidays, UK is first B2B online shopping
2012: US eCommerce and Online Retail sales projected to reach $226 billion, an increase of 12 percent over 2011.
BIT Alumni - Ganesh Natarajan - Deputy Chairman and Managing Director of Zensar Technologies
Deven Sharma - president of Standard & Poor's
Arup Roy Choudhury - NTPC
Anjan Lahiri serves as President and CEO of MindTree’s IT Services business
Companies such as eBay operate out of India as they are merely a listing platform but Amazon will not be permitted to enter India as they are buyers and sellers.
Muralikrishnan B., eBay India’s Country Manager substantiates this point. “eBay India is a 100 per cent subsidiary of eBay Inc. We are a market place, which means that we do not hold or own inventory. We are a platform that enables trade between various sellers and buyers,
Obama / Romney
Auto industry bailout Y/N
Tax, rich more / rich benefit more
Iran no war in near future/ pro war
Energy - green/coal
Indian reforms - The cabinet is likely to approve bills that would raise the limit on foreign direct investment in insurance companies and open the pension sector to foreign investors - to 49% from the current 26%
In late 2009, fears of a sovereign debt crisis developed among investors concerning Greece's ability to meet its debt obligations due to strong increase in government debt levels. This led to a crisis of confidence
On 2 May 2010, the Eurozone countries and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) agreed on a €110 billion bailout loan for Greece, conditional on the implementation of austerity measures. In October 2011, Eurozone leaders agreed to offer a second €130 billion bailout loan for Greece, conditional not only the implementation of another austerity package, but also that all private creditors holding Greek government bonds should sign a deal accepting a 53.5% face value loss.
If Greece can comply with all economic targets outlined in the bailout plan, the country is set for a possible return in 2015, to start using the private capital markets for debt refinance and as a source to cover its future financial needs.
In mid-May 2012 the crisis and impossibility to form a new coalition government after elections, led to strong speculation Greece would have to leave the Eurozone. The potential exit became known as "Grexit" and started to affect international market behaviour. A second election in mid-June, ended with the formation of a new government supporting a continued adherence to the main principles outlined by the signed bailout plan. The new government however immediately asked its creditors, due to a delayed reform schedule and a worsened economic recession, to be granted an extended deadline from 2015 to 2017 before being required to be self-financed; with minor budget deficits fully covered by extraordinary income from the privatisation program for a subsequent 5-year period. The creditors are currently examining this request in the light of an updated and recalculated sustainability analysis of the Greek economy, and are expected to publish a report with their findings in September 2012. If Greece is granted the two extra years to restore their fiscal balance, this will either require creditors to: 1) fund Greece with a new extra third bailout loan, or 2) launch a new debt restructure to decrease the debt repayment (i.e., by imposing additional haircuts on governmental bonds, or by offering Greece to pay some lower/delayed interest rates)
Causes - low GDP, Government deficit
Greece was living beyond its means even before it joined the euro. After it adopted the single currency, public spending soared.
Public sector wages, for example, rose 50% between 1999 and 2007 - far faster than in other eurozone countries.
And while money flowed out of the government's coffers, its income was hit by widespread tax evasion. So, after years of overspending, its budget deficit - the difference between spending and income - spiralled out of control.
When the global financial downturn hit, therefore, Greece was ill-prepared to cope.
Debt levels reached the point where the country was no longer able to repay its loans, and was forced to ask for help from its European partners and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in the form of massive loans.
In the short term, however, the conditions attached to these loans have compounded Greece's woes
***Japan's credit rating has been downgraded by two levels by rating agency Fitch on concerns about the country's high levels of debt.
Fitch cut Japan's rating to A+ from AA and warned that further downgrades were possible.
Japan has by far the highest debt to GDP ratio of any major economy, although much of this debt is held by domestic investors.
The government has spent huge amounts of money on trying to stimulate growth
but because the majority of this debt is held domestically, the interest rate it has to pay to borrow money is very low - less than Germany and the US
Unlike many highly-indebted countries in Europe, it therefore has no problems in raising funds to repay debts.
Sovereign default - Without a bailout agreement, there was a possibility that Greece would prefer to default on some of its debt. The premiums on Greek debt had risen to a level that reflected a high chance of a default or restructuring
2008-2012 - In Spain, the crisis was generated by long-term loans (commonly issued for 40 years), the building market crash, which included the bankruptcy of major companies, and a particularly severe increase in unemployment, which rose to 24.4% by March 2012
Spain continued the path of economic growth when the ruling party changed in 2004, keeping robust GDP growth during the first term of prime minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, even though some fundamental problems in the Spanish economy were already evident. Among these, according to the Financial Times, there was Spain's huge trade deficit (which reached a staggering 10% of the country's GDP by the summer of 2008)
Public's mortgage debt is huge
governments need money for everything from infrastructure to social programs. The problem large organizations run into is that they typically need far more money than the average bank can provide. The solution is to raise money by issuing bonds (or other debt instruments) to a public market
Coupon is interest rate and then there is maturity date
not much gain if company profits, but if bankrupt, higher claim than stockholder
>monetary policy - Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money, often targeting a rate of interest for the purpose of promoting economic growth and stability. The official goals usually include relatively stable prices and low unemployment
fiscal policy- In economics and political science, fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection (taxation) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy. The two main instruments of fiscal policy are government taxation and expenditure
Health Care Reforms in US - The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), commonly called Obamacare (or the federal health care law), is a United States federal statute signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. Together with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, it represents the most significant regulatory overhaul of the U.S. healthcare system since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965.
PPACA is aimed primarily at decreasing the number of uninsured Americans and reducing the overall costs of health care. It provides a number of mechanisms—including mandates, subsidies, and tax credits—to employers and individuals in order to increase the coverage rate. Additional reforms are aimed at improving healthcare outcomes and streamlining the delivery of health care. PPACA requires insurance companies to cover all applicants and offer the same rates regardless of pre-existing conditions or gender. The Congressional Budget Office projected that PPACA will lower both future deficits and Medicare spending.
Occupy Wall Street - Occupy Wall Street (OWS) is the name given to a protest movement that began on September 17, 2011 in Zuccotti Park, located in New York City's Wall Street financial district.
The Canadian activist group Adbusters initiated the protest, which has led to Occupy protests and movements around the world. The main issues are social and economic inequality, greed, corruption and the perceived undue influence of corporations on government—particularly from the financial services sector. The OWS slogan, We are the 99%, addresses the growing income inequality and wealth distribution in the U.S. between the wealthiest 1% and the rest of the population. To achieve their goals, protesters act on consensus-based decision made in general assemblies which emphasize direct action over petitioning authorities for redress
The Occupy movement is an international protest movement against social and economic inequality, its primary goal being to make the economic structure and power relations in society fairer. Different local groups have different foci, but among the prime concerns is the claim that large corporations and the global financial system control the world in a way that disproportionately benefits a minority, undermines democracy and is unstable
EUROPA - European Central Bank -
Euro zone crisis / European sovereign-debt crisis
is an ongoing financial crisis that has made it difficult or impossible for some countries in the euro area to repay or re-finance their government debt without the assistance of third parties.
From late 2009, fears of a sovereign debt crisis developed among investors as a result of the rising private and government debt levels around the world together with a wave of downgrading of government debt in some European states. Causes of the crisis varied by country. In several countries, private debts arising from a property bubble were transferred to sovereign debt as a result of banking system bailouts and government responses to slowing economies post-bubble. In Greece, unsustainable public sector wage and pension commitments drove the debt increase.
***The structure of the Eurozone as a monetary union (i.e., one currency) without fiscal union (e.g.different tax and public pension rules) contributed to the crisis and harmed the ability of European leaders to respond. European banks own a significant amount of sovereign debt, such that concerns regarding the solvency of banking systems or sovereigns are negatively reinforcing.
The European sovereign debt crisis resulted from a combination of complex factors, including the globalization of finance; easy credit conditions during the 2002–2008 period that encouraged high-risk lending and borrowing practices; the 2007–2012 global financial crisis; international trade imbalances; real-estate bubbles that have since burst; the 2008–2012 global recession; fiscal policy choices related to government revenues and expenses; and approaches used by nations to bail out troubled banking industries and private bondholders, assuming private debt burdens or socializing losses
NREGA - 2005 40000CR- Rs.120 - people living in rural India, whether or not they are below the poverty line
Despite its best intentions, MGNREGA is beset with controversy about corrupt officials, deficit financing as the source of funds, poor quality of infrastructure built under this program, and unintended destructive effect on poverty
Central Government meets the cost towards the payment of wage, 3/4 of material cost and some percentage of administrative cost. State Governments meet the cost of unemployment allowance, 1/4 of material cost and administrative cost of State council
2G spectrum scam
The 2G spectrum scam involved politicians and government officials in India illegally undercharging mobile telephony companies for frequency allocation licenses, which they would then use to create 2G subscriptions for cell phones. The shortfall between the money collected and the money which the law mandated to be collected is estimated to be 176,645 crore (US$33.39 billion), as valued by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India based on 3G and BWA spectrum auction prices in 2010
- 2 February 2012 when the Supreme Court of India - cancelled 122 licenses
- The original plan for awarding licences was to follow a first-come-first-served policy to applicants. A. Raja manipulated the rules so that the first-come-first-served policy would kick in - not on the basis of who applied first for a license, but who complied with the conditions. On 10 January 2008, companies were given just a few hours to provide their Letters of Intent and cheques. Those allegedly tipped off by Mr Raja were waiting with their cheques and other documents
The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India is an authority, established by the Constitution of India under Chapter V, who audits all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and the state governments, including those of bodies and authorities substantially financed by the government. The CAG is also the external auditor of government-owned companies. The reports of the CAG are taken into consideration by the Public Accounts Committees, which are special committees in the Parliament of India and the state legislatures. The CAG is also the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department, which has over 58,000 employees across the country.
The CAG is ranked 9th and enjoys the same status as a judge of Supreme Court of India in Indian order of precedence. The current CAG of India is Vinod Rai, who was appointed on 7 January 2008
Difference between credit rating and credit score
A credit score is the numerical value calculated from information in your credit file that is used by lenders and landlords to assess your “credit risk” at that time
Fair Issac corp
A credit report is a summary of your financial reliability—for the most part, your history of paying debts and other bills - Equifax, TransUnion
Whether an agency take permission from an individual before sharing his credit rating???
Some entities and individuals, such as an employer or landlord, must obtain your permission before pulling your credit report. However, other entities, such as credit card companies or debt collection agencies, can legally access your report without prior consent.
What do you think food inflation will go up or down in the next 6 months
The delayed monsoon, coupled with weaknesses in the agricultural supply chains and rising costs of fertilizers and irrigation, are likely to result in subdued agricultural growth and sustain pressure on food prices. Industrial output is expected to remain subdued in FY2012, with only a modest improvement in FY2013, while weak demand from industrialised countries continues to take its toll on exports. The slowdown in new infrastructure projects and the shelving of some approved projects points to continued weakness in investment.
India's consulates in Afganistan - Herat, Kabul
Larry Page, Sergey Brin - Google
between High Commisoner and ambassador
no diff in terms of funct
The former term is used to refer to Britain’s diplomatic missions in commonwealth countries. For example, the diplomatic mission in Delhi is called the High Commission
Since the United States and Russia were never a part of the commonwealth - ambassd
JanLokpal Bill - lokpal - protector of people
The Jan Lokpal Bill aims to effectively deter corruption, compensate citizen grievances, and protect whistle-blowers
If passed into law, the bill would create an independent ombudsman body called the Lokpal
The body would be empowered to register and investigate complaints of corruption against politicians and bureaucrats without prior government approval
The Lokpal Bill was first introduced by Shanti Bhushan in 1968 and passed the 4th Lok Sabha in 1969. But before it could be passed by Rajya Sabha, the Lok Sabha was dissolved and the bill lapsed
- To establish a central government anti-corruption institution called Lokpal, supported by Lokayukta at the state level.
- As is the case with the Supreme Court of India and Cabinet Secretariat, the Lokpal will be supervised by the Cabinet Secretary and the Election Commission. As a result, it will be completely independent of the government and free from ministerial influence in its investigations.
- Members will be appointed by judges, Indian Administrative Service officers with a clean record, private citizens and constitutional authorities through a transparent and participatory process.
- A selection committee will invite short-listed candidates for interviews, the video recordings of which will thereafter be made public.
- Every month on its website, the Lokayukta will publish a list of cases dealt with, brief details of each, their outcome and any action taken or proposed. It will also publish lists of all cases received by the Lokayukta during the previous month, cases dealt with and those which are pending.
- Investigations of each case must be completed in one year. Any resulting trials should be concluded in the following year, giving a total maximum process time of two years.
*** In 2011, during the Parliament's Winter Session, the Lok Sabha passed the controversial Lokpal Bill, but it was subsequently turned down in the Rajya Sabha.
suo moto not allowed
CBI merge vs independent
Jan Lokpal is drafted to check Govt bodies, how will it reduce the corruption in the corporate world - pay to minsters policy change
The Tea Party movement is an American political movement that advocates strict adherence to the United States Constitution, reducing U.S. government spending and taxes, and reduction of the U.S. national debt and federal budget deficit. The movement is generally considered to be partly conservative, partly libertarian, and partly populist. The movement has sponsored protests and supported political candidates since 2009
The Tea Party agenda is not well defined, though it is anti-government, anti-spending, anti-immigration and anti-compromise politics
The export-driven, state-investment model is producing diminishing returns
10% in last 3 decades
The World Bank calls for nothing less than a sweeping overhaul of the system. State-owned companies should be scaled back, and private enterprise encouraged. Banks need to be independent so they can distribute capital according to the rules of risk and reward. Instead of relying on Western markets, the government should encourage Chinese citizens to consume Chinese goods — and it can do that by improving social services and bridging the yawning income gap between rich and poor
***Current state of indian economy interest rate hikes and inflation
GDP and GNP
GDP - An estimated value of the total worth of a country’s production and services, on its land, by its nationals and foreigners, calculated over the course on one year
Total value of products & Services produced within the territorial boundary of a country
To see the strength of a country’s local economy
GNP - An estimated value of the total worth of production and services, by citizens of a country, on its land or on foreign land, calculated over the course on one year
Total value of Goods and Services produced by all nationals of a country (whether within or outside the country)
To see how the nationals of a country are doing economically
GDP = consumption + investment + (government spending) + (exports - imports)
GNP = GDP + NR (Net income inflow from assets abroad or Net Income Receipts) - NP (Net payment outflow to foreign assets)
eligibility criteria to be the president of India
no office of profit
no criminal conviction, bankrupt
by an electoral college consisting of the elected members of both houses of Parliament, the elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies (Vidhan Sabha) and the elected members of the legislative assemblies of the Union Territories
twenty-eight states and seven union territories
Moral Hazards - persons with insurance against automobile theft may be less cautious about locking their car, because the negative consequences of vehicle theft are now (partially) the responsibility of the insurance company
The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) is one of the apex trade associations of India. The organisation represents the interests of trade and commerce in India, and acts as an interface between industry, government and other relevant stakeholders on policy issues and initiatives. The goal of this organization is to promote both domestic and international trade
The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) is an association of business organizations in India, headquartered in the national capital New Delhi. FICCI is one of the main organizations to fund and support many governmental and non-governmental educational institutes
R V Kanoria
Overall Mission :
The mission of the Institute is to develop innovative and ethical future leaders capable of managing change and transformation in a globally competitive environment and to advance the theory and practice of management.
Core Institutional Values :
We shall strive to develop and sustain the following values to provide the context for all our programmes and activities:
Responsiveness to Societal Needs,
Diversity with Synergy
The reserve requirement (or cash reserve ratio) is a central bank regulation that sets the minimum reserves each commercial bank must hold (rather than lend out) of customer deposits and notes. These required reserves are normally in the form of cash stored physically in a bank vault (vault cash) or deposits made with a central bank
Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR)
Apart from the CRR, banks are required to maintain liquid assets in the form of gold, cash and approved securities. Higher liquidity ratio forces commercial banks to maintain a larger proportion of their resources in liquid form and thus reduces their capacity to grant loans and advances, thus it is an anti-inflationary impact. A higher liquidity ratio diverts the bank funds from loans and advances to investment in government and approved securities
Statutory Liquidity Ratio refers to the amount that the commercial banks require to maintain in the form of cash, or gold or govt. approved securities before providing credit to the customers. Here by approved securities we mean, bond and shares of different companies
2. exponential graph
In mathematics, the exponential function is the function ex, where e is the number (approximately 2.718281828) such that the function ex is its own derivative. The exponential function is used to model a relationship in which a constant change in the independent variable gives the same proportional change (i.e. percentage increase or decrease) in the dependent variable.
3. Value of e = 2.71
A problem may have numerous algorithmic solutions. In order to choose the best algorithm for a particular task, you need to be able to judge how long a particular solution will take to run. Or, more accurately, you need to be able to judge how long two solutions will take to run, and choose the better of the two. You don't need to know how many minutes and seconds they will take, but you do need some way to compare algorithms against one another.
Asymptotic complexity is a way of expressing the main component of the cost of an algorithm, using idealized units of computational work. Consider, for example, the algorithm for sorting a deck of cards, which proceeds by repeatedly searching through the deck for the lowest card. The asymptotic complexity of this algorithm is the square of the number of cards in the deck. This quadratic behavior is the main term in the complexity formula, it says, e.g., if you double the size of the deck, then the work is roughly quadrupled
4. Prove 5^0=1
6. Poisson distribution
In probability theory and statistics, the Poisson distribution (pronounced [pwas?~]) is a discrete probability distribution that expresses the probability of a given number of events occurring in a fixed interval of time and/or space if these events occur with a known average rate and independently of the time since the last
7. How will you calculate maxima and minima. By plotting graph. They gave some functions (x*x and sinx), and I demonstrated answers by plotting graphs
8. Do you know any other method for determining maxima and minima? Yes, using derivatives
9. Which derivatives
In calculus, a branch of mathematics, the derivative is a measure of how a function changes as its input changes. Loosely speaking, a derivative can be thought of as how much one quantity is changing in response to changes in some other quantity; for example, the derivative of the position of a moving object with respect to time is the object's instantaneous velocity
10.How to find which are maxima and minima
11.What is the derivative of logx
dy/dx of e^x = e^x
dy/dx of e^f(x) = f '(x)e^f(x)
dy/dx of lnx = 1/x
dy/dx of [ln[f(x)] = f '(x)/f(x)
12.What is the derivative of a^x
f (x) = 2^x
therefore 2^x = e^(x ln 2)
f '(x) = (e^(x ln 2))(ln 2) = 2^x * ln 2
ln x /
loga x =
13.Pythagoras theorem prove
One incident of leadership in your professional life
What want to do after IIMC
post MBA apart IT which stream you would like to join
Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI - V1.3) is a process improvement approach. CMMI can be used to guide process improvement across a project, a division, or an entire organization. Processes are rated according to their maturity levels, which are defined as: Initial, Managed, Defined, Qualitatively Managed, Optimizing
CAR - 5
An organization cannot be certified in CMMI; instead, an organization is appraised. Depending on the type of appraisal, the organization can be awarded a maturity level rating (1-5) or a capability level achievement profile
In a global context, world GDP and world GNP are, therefore, equivalent terms
Business-to-business (B2B) describes commerce transactions between businesses, such as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer
The volume of B2B (Business-to-Business) transactions is much higher than the volume of B2C transactions.  The primary reason for this is that in a typical supply chain there will be many B2B transactions involving sub components or raw materials, and only one B2C transaction, specifically sale of the finished product to the end customer. For example, an automobile manufacturer makes several B2B transactions such as buying tires, glass for windscreens, and rubber hoses for its vehicles. The final transaction, a finished vehicle sold to the consumer, is a single (B2C) transaction.
When communication is taking place amongst employees, this can be referred to as "B2B" communication
Many businesses are now using social media to connect with their consumers (B2C)
*b2c - CONSUMER
b2g - marketing products and services to various government levels
In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction, a general slowdown in economic activity. Macroeconomic indicators such as GDP, employment, investment spending, capacity utilization, household income, business profits, and inflation fall, while bankruptcies and the unemployment rate rise.
Recessions generally occur when there is a widespread drop in spending, often following an adverse supply shock or the bursting of an economic bubble. Governments usually respond to recessions by adopting expansionary macroeconomic policies, such as increasing money supply, increasing government spending and decreasing taxation
"two down consecutive quarters of GDP"
A severe (GDP down by 10%) or prolonged (three or four years) recession is referred to as an economic depression
Stregths - plan, team leader, ownership, go getter, not give-up
Weakness - lack of trust on quality of work by subordinates, panic if delay, too helpful- others not grow
Why an MBA -
Confidence to peers
logic to software so mba to business
If you as an IT manager have an MBA, you're seen as having more to offer than just your knowledge of technology.
You will communicate better with your business colleagues.
An MBA better prepares you to solve business problems
Tell me your most significant achievement in work?
PE of index - 17
HCl - 16
P/E = Stock Price / EPS
Earnings Per Share is calculated by dividing a company's net revenues by the outstanding shares
GDP, India China, US, UK, Germany
$1.8T % 5.8%, 8& 2%, 16 1.7, 2, 2.5
rank - US, China, Japan, Germany, india-9
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is an economic theory and a technique used to determine the relative value of currencies, estimating the amount of adjustment needed on the exchange rate between countries in order for the exchange to be equivalent to (or on par with) each currency's purchasing power.
It asks how much money would be needed to purchase the same goods and services in two countries, and uses that to calculate an implicit foreign exchange rate
GDP = private consumption + gross investment + government spending + (exports - imports), or
GNP = GDP + Ext income
GDP rank 11, PPP 3
$1.676 trillion (nominal: 11th; 2011)
$4.457 trillion (PPP: 3rd; 2011)
GDP Growth 5.5%
Per capita $1400
GDP by sector agriculture: 17.2%, industry: 26.4%, services: 56.4% (2011 est.)
Main Industry - Software, textile, steel, pharma, cement
Exports $300 billion iron, steel, auto, jewelry UAE US
Imports $450 Billion petrol, machinery China, US
External Debt $290 billion
Budget deficit 5.9% of GDP (2011–12)
Revenues $196.4 billion (2011 est.)
Expenses $308.8 billion (2011 est.)
Economic aid $2 billion (2008)
SnP rating negative, BBB-
Foreign Reserves $300 billion
Labour force 48 crores
by occupation agriculture: 52%, industry: 14%, services: 34% (2009 est.)
Unemployment 9.8% (2011 est
budget deficit - 6%
budget passed in legislature and approved by President
property tax-minicipal, sales tax - state, income tax - gentral
tax exepmt 1.8 to 2
GDP growth 6.5% (FY 2012)
GDP per capita
Exports $298.2 billion - precious stones, software
Imports $451 billion - crude oil
Gross external debt $267.1 billion
GDP by sector agriculture: 17.2%, industry: 26.4%, services(IT): 56.4% (2011 est.)
IT to GDP - 4.5%
HCL - 4.2B
TCS - 10 / p-2
Infosys 7- 1.7
Wipro - 7 - 1
Satyam - 1.16
Information technology consulting - is a field that focuses on advising businesses on how best to use information technology to meet their business objectives.
In addition to providing advice, IT consultancies often estimate, manage, implement, deploy, and administer IT systems on businesses' behalf, known as Outsourcing
Strategy is a plan of action designed to achieve a specific goal. Strategy is all about gaining (or being prepared to gain) a position of advantage over adversaries or best exploiting emerging possibilities.
As there is always an element of uncertainty about future, strategy is more about a set of options ("strategic choices") than a fixed plan.
Strategic management is a field that deals with the major intended and emergent initiatives taken by general managers on behalf of owners, involving utilization of resources, to enhance the performance of ?rms in their external environments. It entails specifying the organization's mission, vision and objectives, developing policies and plans, often in terms of projects and programs, which are designed to achieve these objectives, and then allocating resources to implement the policies and plans, projects and programs. A balanced scorecard is often used to evaluate the overall performance of the business and its progress towards objectives. Recent studies and leading management theorists have advocated that strategy needs to start with stakeholders expectations and use a modified balanced scorecard which includes all stakeholders
Steps in decision manking -
1. Is it required?
2. What are Req?
3. get options
4. analyze options
5. criteria on which options will be judged
6. criteria vs options
7. combine is possible?
Information management (IM) is the collection and management of information from one or more sources and the distribution of that information to one or more audiences
Management means the organization of and control over the structure, processing and delivery of information
Rahul bajaj - He took over the reins of Bajaj Group in 1965. Under his stewardship, the turnover of the Bajaj Auto the flagship company has risen from Rs.72 million to Rs.46.16 billion. Rahul Bajaj created one of India's best companies in the difficult days of the licence-permit raj. He established factories at Akurdi and Waluj. In 1980s Bajaj Auto was top scooter producer in India and its Chetak brand had a 10-year waiting period.
Learn details about your company like sales, profit, # of employees - Ex mine was Ebay -
GSI Commerce is an eBay company specializing in creating, developing and running online shopping sites for brick and mortar brands and retailers.
The company also provides a variety of marketing, consumer engagement, customer care, payment processing, fulfillment, fraud detection, and technology integration services. GSI Commerce has over 500 clients.
ebay - June 2011 - $2.4 B... net revenue - $1 B
****A few things about terms you came across in your career
peers dislike - trust
why iimc - confidence to peers, so much to study
trigger - isb passout
short term long term
hcl qoq yoy